Fiber optical sensors

E5.2.9.7 Optical sensors


  • Interferometric sensors.
  • Intensity sensors.
  • Mach-Zehnder interferometer.
  • Temperature sensors.
  • Stress and pressure sensors.
  • Current sensors.
  • Computer control.
Principle of operation

The main reasons for the popularity of optical fibre based sensor systems are their small size, light weight and immunity to electromagnetic interference (EMI). Furthermore, the widespread use of optical fibre communication devices in the telecommunication industry has dropped the costs of optical fibre sensors. They have been developed for a variety of applications in industry, medicine, defence and research. Some of these applications include gyroscopes for navigation systems, for the measurement of variousphysical and electrical parameters like temperature, pressure, liquid level, acceleration and voltage in mains power plants. The response of all optical fibre sensors is a change in either polarization, phase, frequency, intensity or a combination of all. Optical fibre sensors can be classified according to their properties. Two major types exist: an intensity based and an interferometric based. The intensity based sensors require simple electronics. The interferometric based type requires advanced signal processing and has an extremely high sensitivity

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